At the core of defining Information Theory 2.0 is the need to define information. The difficulty is that defining information is like defining the nature of reality itself. ¬†Information might fall into the universal category of I can’t define it but I know it when we see it. So with that in mind here is an example to help know it when we see it.

Apples arranged into letters have information. There is a message.

A pile of apples has no message. There is information.

Think about it. The fact is there is still information but it’s just a way to simplify things.